Bridge Construction

Internal forces on a frame bridge
Internal forces on a frame bridge
Bridge checks for a shell structure
Bridge checks for a shell structure

This module is used for bridge and other engineering constructions in which the actions from the road or railroad traffic have to be taken into account. Permitted structure models include 2D and 3D beam, area and solid constructions. The module can be used to analyze components without prestressing as well as prestressed components with subsequent bond, without bond, with external prestressing and in mixed constructions. Optionally, the guideline for the recalculation of existing road bridges (Recalculation Guideline) can be taken into account. The large number of results can be viewed in a clear and detailed manner and a variety of graphical display options are available.

Integral bridge with pile foundation
Integral bridge with pile foundation

Bridge Construction Checks:

  • EN 1992-2 and DIN Technical Report
  • Consideration of any stresses and loading
  • Special preparation of the load model LM 1 and LMM
  • Automatic combination of actions
    - construction and final stages for all action combinations
    - optional user-defined actions
  • Checks at the ultimate limit state
    - minimum reinforcement to ensure robustness
    - bending with or without longitudinal force or longitudinal force only
    - lateral force with regard to the minimum level of reinforcement
    - pure torsion and torsion with lateral force
    - check against fatigue (concrete, reinforcing steel and prestressing
      steel)
  • Checks at the serviceability limit state
    - minimum reinforcement for limiting the crack width
    - limiting the crack width through direct calculation
    - decompression check
    - limiting the concrete compressive stresses
    - limiting the reinforcing steel stresses
    - limiting the prestressing steel stresses
    - check for the diagonal principal tensile stresses
  • Recalculation guideline for road bridges

Load Model

The movable traffic loads from load model 1 are processed with a special load function.
This function clearly arranges the positions of the tandem system and the UDL loads on the bridge. Any number of load positions and lane configurations can be defined in this process. The distance between vehicles, the load distribution height and the centrifugal load of the tandem systems are automatically taken into consideration. The program can therefore create the necessary action combinations on its own.

Actions and Combinations

The existing load cases are assigned to the relevant actions which are then used to construct the action combinations according to the selected standard.
A variety of situations (e.g., for the construction or final state) can be created for this.
The partial safety factors and combination coefficients are specified by the program for this purpose in accordance with the applicable standard. All coefficients can be supplemented or changed during the editing process. The program then uses this information to determine the extremal system reactions based on the combination specifications.

Checks

Checks are carried out for each specified design situation based on the requirement classes. Depending on the situation, a variety of specifications for the construction or final state are used. The identified reinforcements are based on the checks and may, if necessary, be increased until they are in compliance. The longitudinal and stirrup reinforcement is stored separately based on the checks and is available for display in addition to the extreme value of all reinforcements. The checked stresses and utilizations resulting from fatigue, decompression and other factors are also stored and can then be applied to the system. A detailed log lists all the information that is relevant for the test in a clear and easy-to-understand manner.

Construction Stages

Managing construction stages is an important feature for bridge construction. It provides an easy way to determine, for example, creep and shrinkage redistributions in different phases of the construction.  For every construction stage a file is created for which all calculation options are available. Redundant use of load cases and elements is prevented by the system. The results of all construction stages can be combined with or superposed on one another.

References

Allgemeines Rundschreiben Straßenbau (ARS) Nr. 22/2012
des Bundesministeriums für Verkehr, Bau- und Stadtentwicklung (BMVBS)
(General Newsletter on Roadworks (ARS) No. 22/2012 from the Federal Ministry of Transport, Construction and Housing (BMVBS)) from 26 November 2012. BMVBS, Bonn 2012.

DIN EN 1990/NA:2010/A1:2012-08
Nationaler Anhang – National festgelegte Parameter – (National Annex – Nationally Determined Parameters)
Eurocode: Grundlagen der Tragwerksplanung; Änderung A1. (Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design; Amendment A1)
Publisher: DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V., Berlin.
Beuth Verlag, Berlin 2012.

DIN EN 1991-2/NA:2012-08
Nationaler Anhang – National festgelegte Parameter – (National Annex – Nationally Determined Parameters)
Eurocode 1: Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke – Teil 2: Verkehrslasten auf Brücken.
(Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures – Part 2: Traffic Loads on Bridges).
Publisher: DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V., Berlin.
Beuth Verlag, Berlin 2012.

DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA:2013-04
Nationaler Anhang – National festgelegte Parameter – (National Annex – Nationally Determined Parameters)
Eurocode 2: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton- und Spannbetontragwerken –
Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln und Regeln für den Hochbau.
(Design of Concrete Structures - Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings).
Publisher: DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., Berlin.
Beuth Verlag, Berlin 2013.

DIN EN 1992-2/NA:2013-04
Nationaler Anhang – National festgelegte Parameter – (National Annex – Nationally Determined Parameters)
Eurocode 2: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton- und Spannbetontragwerken –
Teil 2: Betonbrücken - Bemessungs- und Konstruktionsregeln.
(Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures – Part 2: Concrete Bridges – Design and Detailing Rules).
Publisher: DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., Berlin.
Beuth Verlag, Berlin 2013.

Einführungserlass des Eisenbahnbundesamtes
zur Umstellung auf die Eurocodes (Order of Implementation from the Federal Office for Railroads Regarding the Changeover to the Eurocodes) from 30 November 2012. Federal Office for Railroads, Bonn 2012.

EN 1990:2002/A1:2005/AC:2010
Eurocode: Basics of Structural Design
Publisher: CEN European Committee for Standardization, Brussels. Beuth Verlag, Berlin 2010.

EN 1991-1-1:2002
Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures –
Part 1-1: General Actions. Densities, Self-Weight, Imposed Loads for Buildings
Publisher: CEN European Committee for Standardization, Brussels. Beuth Verlag, Berlin 2002.

EN 1991-2:2003
Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures – Part 2: Traffic Loads on Bridges
Publisher: CEN European Committee for Standardization, Brussels. Beuth Verlag, Berlin 2004.

EN 1992-1-1:2004
Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures – Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings
Publisher: CEN European Committee for Standardization, Brussels. Beuth Verlag, Berlin 2005.

EN 1992-2:2005/AC:2008
Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures – Part 2: Concrete Bridges - Design and Detailing Rules
Publisher: CEN European Committee for Standardization, Brussels. Beuth Verlag, Berlin 2010.

EN 1998-1:2004
Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance –
Part 1: General Rules, Seismic Actions and Rules for Buildings
Publisher: CEN European Committee for Standardization, Brussels. Beuth Verlag, Berlin 2006.

Heft 466 - Grundlagen und Bemessungshilfen für die Rissbreitenbeschränkung im Stahlbeton und Spannbeton.
(Book 466 - Principles and Design Aids for Crack Width Limitation in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete).
Publisher: Deutscher Ausschuss für Stahlbeton, Berlin. Beuth Verlag, Berlin 1996.

Heft 600 - Erläuterungen zu DIN EN 1992-1-1 und DIN EN 1992-1-1/NA (Eurocode 2).
(Book 600 - Notes to EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1992-1-1/NA (Eurocode 2) )
Publisher: Deutscher Ausschuss für Stahlbeton, Berlin.
Beuth Verlag, Berlin 1996.

Maurer, R.; Zilch, K.; Hegger, J.; Zichner, T.; Dunkelberg, D.; Karakas, A.; Kolodziejcyk, A.
Erläuterungen und Hintergründe zur Nachrechnungsrichtlinie – Betonbrücken
(Explanations and Backgrounds of the Recalculation Guideline – Concrete Bridges).
Bauingenieur 01-2012, pp. 24-35. Springer-VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf 2012.

OENORM B 1990-1:2013-01
Eurocode: Grundlagen der Tragwerksplanung –
Nationale Festlegungen zu ÖNORM EN 1990 und nationale Ergänzungen.
(Basics of Structural Design – National Specifications for OENORM  and National Supplements)
Publisher: ON Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, Vienna. Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, Vienna 2013.

OENORM B 1990-2:2010-12
Eurocode: Grundlagen der Tragwerksplanung – Teil 2: Brückenbau.
Nationale Festlegungen zu ÖNORM EN 1990/A1 und nationale Ergänzungen.
(Basics of Structural Design – Part 2: Bridge Construction –
National Specifications for OENORM EN 1990/A1 and National Supplements)
Publisher: ON Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, Vienna. Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, Vienna 2010.

OENORM B 1991-2:2011-04
Eurocode 1: Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke – Teil 2: Verkehrslasten auf Brücken.
Nationale Festlegungen zu ÖNORM EN 1991-2 und nationale Ergänzungen.
(Actions on Structures – Part 2: Traffic Loads on Bridges –
National Specifications for OENORM EN 1991-2 and National Supplements)
Publisher: ON Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, Vienna. Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, Vienna 2011.

OENORM B 1992-1-1:2011-12
Eurocode 2: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton und Spannbetontragwerken –
Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln und Regeln für den Hochbau –
Nationale Festlegungen zu ÖNORM EN 1991-1-1, nationale Erläuterungen und nationale Ergänzungen.
(Design of Concrete Structures – Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings –
National Specifications for OENORM EN 1992-1-1, National Comments and National Supplements)
Publisher: ON Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, Vienna. Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, Vienna 2011.

OENORM B 1992-2:2014-09
Eurocode 2: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton­ und Spannbetontragwerken –
Teil 2: Betonbrücken – Bemessungs- und Konstruktionsregeln –
Nationale Festlegungen zu ÖNORM EN 1992-2, nationale Erläuterungen und nationale Ergänzungen.
(Design of Concrete Structures – Part 2: Concrete Bridges – Design and Detailing Rules –
National Specifications for OENORM EN 1992-2, National Comments and National Supplements)
Publisher: ON Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, Vienna. Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, Vienna 2014.

Richtlinie zur Nachrechnung von Straßenbrücken im Bestand (Nachrechnungsrichtlinie)
(Guideline for the recalculation of existing road bridges (Recalculation Guideline)).
Publisher: Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung (BMVBS).
Edition May 2011.

Richtlinie zur Nachrechnung von Straßenbrücken im Bestand (Nachrechnungsrichtlinie)
(Guideline for the recalculation of existing road bridges (Recalculation Guideline)).
Publisher: Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung (BMVBS).
First Addendum. Edition April 2015.

Rossner, W.; Gaubner, C-A.
Spannbetonbauwerke.
Teil 3: Bemessungsbeispiele nach DIN 1045-1 und DIN-Fachbericht 102
(Prestressed concrete buildings. Part 3: Design examples according to DIN 1045-1 and DIN-Technical Report 102)
Ernst & Sohn Verlag, Berlin 2005.

Rossner, W.; Gaubner, C-A.
Spannbetonbauwerke.
Teil 4: Bemessungsbeispiele nach Eurocode 2
(Prestressed concrete buildings. Part 4: Design examples according to Eurocode 2)
Ernst & Sohn Verlag, Berlin 2012.

Zilch, K.; Rogge, A.
Bemessung der Stahlbeton- und Spannbetonbauteile nach DIN 1045-1.
(Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Components According to DIN 1045-1)
Betonkalender 2002, V. 1, pp. 217-359. Ernst & Sohn Verlag, Berlin 2002.

Zilch, K.; Zehetmaier, G.
Bemessung im konstruktiven Betonbau nach DIN 1045-1 und EN 1992-1-1.
(Design in Concrete Structure Engineering According to DIN 1045-1 and EN 1992-1-1)
Springer-Verlag, Berlin 2006.